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3 principles for voice-over in e-learning From the book.  E-learning France Business Email List and the Science of Instruction ‘ by Ruth Clark. Richard Meyer, three principles can be deriv for the use of audio and voiceover in e-learning. 1. The modality principle The modality principle is a big name for something simple. This is about reducing the cognitive load. If students have to read something as France Business Email List well as look at a moving image, their attention is divided and they are forced to work harder, which ultimately does not benefit learning.

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So if the focus is on the screen in terms of visual information France Business Email List (video or graphic elements). It is a good idea to use a voice over instead of written text. 2. The Redundancy Principle According to the redundancy principle. It does not work well to have the voice-over verbalize the text. In other words: literally pronounce the text that can also be read. This would actually France Business Email List diminish a learner’s ability to take in everything. So if you want to use the written and spoken word on the screen at the same time, you need a good reason. It can work if you need to put extra emphasis on something, but stick to a short text.

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If the e-learning contains a lot of text that really needs to France Business Email List be read, try to summarize it in bullet points or summaries, and then let the voice-over provide an overview. 3. The contiguity principle The point here is that you have to hear the voice-over at France Business Email List the same time as the image. The narrator or voiceover describes a procedure while the video shows its demonstration. So not after or before, because that only creates an extra load on the working memory.


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